Natalie’s Blog

{May 6, 2009}   Final Project


{April 23, 2009}   Intertexts

1. I find the most interesting quot e to the of Eliot Marshall. Indeed, credit generally goes to those that are most prominent already, allowing an increase in their stature and minimizing the people that did the work in order to achieve that prominence at some point.

2. “Writing … in physical isolation from others, never occurred in a social vacuum.” Every piece of writing has been influenced or written by society, then how can forced solitude in writing be justified in a society where collaboration is so high and prominent?

3. In a world where there are no ideas of private property, would this question of authorship still exist? Would people still question who the right of being first would be? How would that change the collaborative world?

1. The article talks abou thow any new medium would be compared an placed above all mediums. Howver this is not always the case as things like kindle have not gained the extreme mass popularity that other devices have gained. It has not really been “[positioned over] against film, television and the various forms of digital graphics” Is that in its future?

2. Is Benjamin’s argument truly sound? If an image is uploaded to the web, is it fundamentally changed or are there othe reffects?

3. The article mentioned that film is the medium of choice for feminists, however there are significantly more articles, protests and quieter movements than there are feminist themed films. Does the power of a media affect this?

{April 13, 2009}   Poster Project

T&M Launchpad

1. If the user only experiences hypermedia in bursts, how can a person then get an idea of the visual effects beyond a glance?

2. Why does authenticity have to be based on authenticity? Can’t you argue that an interaction is an experience also although the viewer is not directly involved, he or she may be affected in some way.

3. How can remediation in the political sense and the real world be translated into the technological arena?

Copyrights. Such a simple word, but the meaning and its implications are both far reaching as well as important as they relate to individuals, corporations and the general public. Many people feel that copyrights are in place to protect the economic benefits of the creator. However, the original intention of a copyright was to encourage the creativity. The copyright in reality is “a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to the authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, architectural and certain other intellectual works” (“Copyright and the Internet” p. 1). Over the course of history there have been several additions and extensions but the idea of a copyright began with the Statue of Anne from England.

The Statute of Anne was passed in England in 1710 and it was the beginning of what can be considered modern day copyright law. It provided protection for a set limit of twenty eight years before the work passed into the public domain (“Statue of Anne” p.1). In 1790, the United States passed a similar law, called the Copyright Act of 1790 which protected copyrighted materials for 14 years and was renewable for an additional 14. This law applied to maps, books, and charts and violators “shall forfeit all and every copy….and all and every sheet….to the author or proprietor….who shall forthwith destroy the same” (“The First U.S Copyright Law” p. 7).

The next law that was enacted in the United States was in 1831 which extended the protection term from 14 years to 28 years and was followed by an extension of the renewal term from 14 years to 28 years in 1909(Copyright Extension p. 4).

It was the Copyright Act of 1976 that was more than just an extension of the previous laws. Under this act, the owner received exclusives rights of reproduction, adaption, distribution, performance and display. These rights are only limited through that Fair Use Doctrine and First Sale Doctrine. These two doctrines protect the public’s use of copyright material so that the delicate balance of public good and economic benefit is not tipped to economic gain. The Fair Use Doctrine allows teachers to present copyrighted works in class, satirists to comment on works, and reviewers to quote pieces because they constitute a social good through educational, private or satirical use. The First Sale Doctrine protects the purchaser’s right to do with the works as they please. The doctrine allows libraries to lend works, used bookstores to sell works etc without having to consult the copyright owner each time. Both of these doctrines may restrict the rights of the copyright holder but they also facilitate a more simple distribution of intellectual works to the public (“Recent Changes to Copyright” p. 8-9).

The final laws that affected copyright law were the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act in 1998. The DMCA implemented two treaties from 1996 from the World Intellectual Property Organization which made circumventing antipiracy measures in commercial software illegal, outlawed the sale, manufacture or distribution of key generators and code crackers, limited the liability of nonprofit institutions of higher education for copyright infringement and many others. The Sonny Bono Act extended the terms of copyrights by 20 years, so that corporate copyrights would last 95 years while individual copyrights last for the life of the artist plus an additional 70 years (“Copyright and the Internet” p. 5)(“Recent Changes to copyright” p. 20)( “The Digital Millennium Copyright Act – Overview.” p. 4).

The internet provides mass amounts of information and resources to one’s fingertips, but it also brings the controversy of what, how and when something can be used. Where once a graphic designer would have had to take a photograph or draw a picture to include an image within a piece work, now the designer can use the computer and the internet to create the design much quicker. The internet also provides the temptation of using someone else’s images due to the easy and quick access. However, this temptation brings the trap of copyright laws and infringement.

With the advent of the internet, creators feared that their works would be stolen, plagiarized and they would lose control of their works once they were placed on the internet. The largest threat was foreseen by large corporations and media companies who feared their works would be reproduced illegally and they would not receive the royalties or credit deserved. They feared that the Fair Use and First Sale Doctrines would allow individuals a loophole to redistribute work for their own profit and eventually chip away at the corporate profit margin.

Corporations have long been trying to eliminate the Fair Use and First Sale Doctrine and add laws that would tip the delicate balance in their favor. One of the bills that was proposed was the database extraction legislation that would essentially give a database owner a perpetual copyright. Specifically, with each addition into the database the copyright would be extended as if it were a new copyright. This would prevent the database and its information from ever entering the public domain and therefore its unrestricted use by the public. Another argument would be one of digitization which contends that the digitization of an image creates a new copyright. This argument was brought by the Corbis Corporation in hopes of keeping works out of the public domain, where Corbis does not receive a profit, for an additional 95 years(“Recent Changes to Copyright” p. 24).

Due to the fact that copyright laws were written for physical works, it is difficult to completely understand their extension to the internet. The internet is public domain and there is a great deal of controversy surrounding ownership rights. Although the DMCA has provided a better understanding of digital rights, there is still a very large gray area that the law has not yet approached. It is generally a good idea to use a rule of thumb that everything is copyrighted and must be cited or acquire permission for its use. The main exception would be works that the author has granted to the public domain that can be used at will.

copyright.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 31 Mar. 2009 <>.

“Copyright and the Internet.” Mason academic research system ( 31 Mar. 2009 <;.

Copyright Extension. 31 Mar. 2009 <;.

“Copyright Refresher.” United States Patent and Trademark Office Home Page. 31 Mar. 2009 <;.

“Recent Changes to Copyright.” Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. 31 Mar. 2009 <;.

Statute of Anne.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 31 Mar. 2009 <>.

“The Digital Millennium Copyright Act – Overview.” Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. 31 Mar. 2009 < >.

“The First U.S. Copyright Law.” Archiving Early America: Primary Source Material from 18th Century America. 31 Mar. 2009 <;.

{March 31, 2009}   Logo

Roses and Thorns

{March 26, 2009}   Reading 9: “Grid”

1. For me, I see the grid as nothing more than an organizer, what else can it be seen as and how doe s that affect the meaning?

2. Looking at the image of the website on pg 131, I still see just a design and don’t understand the design beyond the straight lines and order created.

3. The quote that “the rise of the internet has rekindled interest in universal design thinking” seems like a repetitive thought to me since the internet has rekindled everything so i don’t think that placing that much pressure on the internet is right since so many other things came into play with the internet.

{March 17, 2009}   Reading 8 “Text”

1. To a person who does not understand typography, the relevance of text, spacing , kerning etc. how ould you explain it to them so that they understand?

2. why does space matter beyond improving legibility?

3. how does the alignment of the text speak to the reader and does it matter in the end? does it convey the same message?

4. does print media provide a different experience than web media?

{March 10, 2009}   Typography Analysis
Dance Poster

Dance Poster

The above  is one of my favorite posters,  and it is one that has hung  on my wall for some time now. I was  originally captivated by its simplicity and  what it represents with only seven words.  The poster is called ” Pointe of Grace”  and was first created by a man named Rick Lord. Rick has many more dance prints, but this was one of the few that I’ve seen with text on it.  The text may or may not be original to the artist however, but that is not important.
What is important is the message that is portrayed. When first looking at typography  I had no idea that the different typefaces could evoke different emotions or ideas, I always just picked a typeface that i liked. Generally these  were cursive typefaces, unless it was for a paper and the  perhaps this is another reason I am drawn to this poster.  Cursive typefaces look pretty and elegant and that  is a quality I strive to incorporate in pieces I write.

In the case of this poster, I think that the typeface is well suited. Although cursive typefaces are somewhat out of style and not generally  used,  I don’t think a different typeface would create the same effect.   Dance, especially ballet,  is an exercise is grace and elegant movement and a thin, cursive typeface continues that idea of movement where the photograph is still in the background. The entire word “dance” is in lower case which provides a sense of continuity since each letter looks similar and is connected to the others.  The black color is the best choice given the light colored background and provides a contrast so that the words stand out. The distance between letters ins very small and continues that idea of continuity and connection. Each step in a dance is connected to the first, the last and everything in between and the connected letters show the same thing.

I think that the actual quote does not stand out enough and although it continues the message of dance and grace it does not stand out.  I think that a slightly higher size would be enough to make the difference. I also think that the name  “Martha Graham” could be slightly smaller  so that the rest of the words would be emphasized. The words are just as, if not more, important than the photo in the background and this should be more evident.

et cetera